2007 McNair Scholars at UW-Superior

2007 McNair Scholars Program Research

Leif Anderson, (McNair Scholar at College of St. Scholastica)
Faculty Mentor: David Tôbaru Obermiller, Ph.D.,Department of Social Inquiry - History

ABSTRACT: The Cultural Revolution of China exists as one of modern history's most profound and deeply troubling events. For ten long years China was engulfed in a state of acute social turmoil, class hysteria, and political violence. Not surprisingly, the immediate aftermath of the decade-long turmoil established a collective memory of trauma.

The death of China's long time Communist leader Mao Zedong in 1976, and subsequent conclusion to the Cultural Revolution (C.R.), ushered in a more pragmatic era under Deng Xiaoping. Deng's policies of economic liberalization and reform produced tremendous economic growth in contemporary China. While the bitter memory of Mao's C.R. enabled the public to embrace Deng's reforms at the time, subsequent economic disparity and government corruption has ironically caused a shift in the social memory of the C.R.

Many Chinese, who have fared poorly under Deng's reforms, have reexamined Mao's tenure in a more sympathetic light, producing a nostalgic view of the C.R. Out of the context of this distrust, a revised historical memory of the C.R. has emerged. Analysis of contemporary literary, film, and autobiographical works reveals an emerging nostalgia in Chinese collective memory toward Mao's tenure.

Adam McCauley
Faculty Mentor:  Mr. Pope Wright, Visual Arts Department

Through my research I wanted to find out the ideas and meanings that the originators of non-objective art had.  In my research I also wanted to find out what were the artists' meanings be it symbolic or geometric, ideas behind composition, and the reasons for such a dramatic break from the academic tradition in painting and the arts. 

Throughout the research I also looked into the resulting conflicts that this style of art had with critics, academia, and ultimately governments.  Ultimately, I wanted to understand if this style of art could be continued in the Post-Modern era and if it could continue its vitality in the arts today as it did in the past.

David Haines
Faculty Mentor:  Mr. Matthew TenEyck, Lake Superior Research Institute (UWS)

: Nonylphenol is believed to have an environmental impact on freshwater organisms.  The purpose of this study was to determine if nonylphenol would affect the hatch time of fathead minnow eggs.  It was hypothesized that the eggs ability to hatch would decrease as the concentrations increase. 

Six exposure concentrations were utilized in the study with four replicates each.  The eggs were exposed to the chemical for seven days during that period were carefully observed.  Measurements of nonylphenol, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity and temperature were also made, all physical water characteristics were within acceptable test limits. 

Heather Neu
Faculty Mentor:  Dr. Troy Bergstedt, Natural Sciences Department

: A synthetic scheme is presented to produce a poly-L-lysine polypeptide which has been modified by the attachment of cyanine dye molecule.  The synthetic techniques and purifications steps are outlined.

Ryan Howes
Faculty Mentor:  Dr. William Simpson, Health and Human Performance Department

ABSTRACT: Competition requiring both aerobic and anaerobic capacity is used while playing the sport of hockey.  In this pilot study, six Division III hockey players volunteered to complete an all-out thirty second sprint test using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (Want).  

Our intention was to compare our dryland tests, the vertical jump and the shuttle run in correlation to the Want.  Although we had a small sampling of a few individuals, this is in no way representative of a team as a whole.  Further descriptive research is to be done in the near future with a relatively larger sample which will include other varsity athletes and teams.


Brandon Thomason
Faculty Mentor:  Dr. William Simpson, Health and Human Performance Department

: For many young people in the United States, college is the first chance to live independently.  These individuals are now responsible for making a variety of choices about their behaviors including nutrition, exercise, and other health habits.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-reported health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) made by the average student and compare to a physical fitness assessment. 

The expected outcomes were: there will be a high incidence of binge and heavy
drinking, a high prevalence of smoking, and there will be a high correlation between those who drink heavily and smoke, and poor health assessment outcomes.  When compared to the national and state averages, results showed a slightly lower average of smoking and binge drinking.  However, heavy drinking was double the national and state averages for 2005.  No significant differences were found between those who practice healthy behaviors and those who do not regarding fitness levels.

Josef Siebert
Faculty Mentor:  Mr. Gary Johnson, Human Behavior, Justice, and Diversity Department

The purpose of this study was to examine the risks associated with genetically engineering wild rice.  Wild rice is an important traditional food of the Ojibwe people as well as commercial crops, so any possible changes should face additional scrutiny.  After three interviews and many reviews of various publications, it was concluded that the genetic engineering of wild rice, if grown outdoors, would inevitable lead to the contamination of native wild rice stands.  This would be harmful to the Ojibwe people culturally, economically, and spiritually.

Sheng Hang
Faculty Mentor:  Dr. Khalil Dokhanchi, Human Behavior, Justice, and Diversity Department

: This research is about what role rape plays in times of war.  Rape, as a weapon of war, is used as a form of power and control, torture, and genocide or ethnic cleansing.  The focus will be on the war in Bosnia because it was the first time that rape was recognized internationally and it was also the first time that the criminals were put on trial for their crimes.  Evidence will be given to support the statement that rape, during war, is used as a form of power and control, torture, and genocide or ethnic cleansing.

Erika Runstrom
Faculty Mentor:  Dr. Shevaun Stocker, Human Behavior, Justice, and Diversity Department

: This study is an effort to understand why oral health inequalities exist at high rates, regardless of the policies and intervention that have been put into place to reduce oral health inequalities.  This study explores the public health theoretical approaches of sense of coherence and social capital in order to understand the relationship between social environment and oral health. 

Researcher predicted a positive correlation between social capital, sense of coherence, oral health and perceived need.  Additionally, the study tested for a correlation between income, social capital and sense of coherence.  Thirty University of Wisconsin-Superior students were given a four-part survey, which included sense of coherence, oral health and quality of life, perceived need and social capital.A correlation between sense of coherence and oral health was not statistically significant, however the relationship was in the predicted direction-as one's sense of coherence increases, so does one's oral health. 

Data supported a correlation between sense of coherence, happiness, and overall health.  Data also supported a correlation between social capital and oral health.  However, sense of coherence and social capital did not act as a predictor of the perceived need for dental treatment.  Data did support a correlation between perceived need and oral health.  Income acted as a predictor of sense of coherence, but not as a predictor of social capital.  The research reveals there is a continuing need to reveal the dental inequalities in populations and a continuing need to adopt a more holistic approach to oral health promotion activities and public health policy.

Tegan Wendland
Faculty Mentor:  Dr. Khalil Dokhanchi, Human Behavior, Justice, and Diversity Department

: Throughout the 1,000 days of siege in Sarajevo the United Nations struggled to intervene and end the ethnic cleansing and aggression on Bosnian Muslims.  The UN played an important interventional role and strived to provide enforced safe zones, peacekeeping troops and humanitarian aid and drafted several peace treaties.  Yet the success of the UN's intervention strategy during the conflict remains controversial for several reasons. 

Sarajevo's daily newspaper ran regular political cartoons that tended to portray the UN's actions as more destructive than constructive.  Analysis of these cartoons reflects how the citizens of Sarajevo believe the UN failed to intervene successfully during the siege, and how Bosnian people suffered immensely from this failure.  This paper analyzes three issues addressed by these political cartoons: UN complicity with the Serbian aggressor, the failure of UN-enforced "safe zones" and lack of success in the delivery of humanitarian aid.

Nicole Patnaude
Faculty Mentor:  Ms. Elizabeth Twining-Blue, Social Work, Human Behavior, Justice, and Diversity Department

ABSTRACT: This project was conducted with youth who have participated in the Northwood Children's Services Therapeutic Foster Care program since its inception.  It was a mailed survey to which nine youth responded.  Generally speaking, the youth rated their experiences positively.